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This Constitution Brief focuses on strategies and mechanisms for breaking a deadlock in constitutional negotiations conducted in an environment of competitive democratic politics. In democratic constitutional reform processes, a diversity of stakeholders with divergent views and conflicting interests may participate in high-stakes negotiations over long-term arrangements for access to public power and resources. In addition, a supermajority is often required in order to encourage broad consensus and support for the new constitutional order. More than solely a technical exercise, the making of a new constitution through an inclusive democratic process is thus first and foremost a political process that requires substantial bargaining, trade-offs and creativity from the parties involved.

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