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This article aims to analyze the mechanisms through which the parliamentary representation of ethnic minorities is ensured in Romania. After briefly reviewing the situation in other countries in South East Europe, the case of Romania is exposed: there a clear distinction appears between the Hungarian minority and all other minorities. The Romanian system is then analyzed in detail and the results of the 1996 and 2000 parliamentary elections are used as case studies. The paper ends with a discussion on the advantages and disadvantages of the Romanian system and suggests a few possible improvements.