This paper draws on the findings of six case studies on the role of parliaments in conflict and post-conflict situations that were prepared in the period January to June 2005 by the Centre for Liberal Strategies and its partners in the CIS countries studied. The case studies cover five countries (Georgia, Macedonia, Moldova, Serbia, Ukraine) and the UN-administered Kosovo region, within the federation of Serbia and Montenegro. The purpose of this paper is to elaborate trends and problems, which are common to the region of Eastern Europe as a whole. In doing so, the paper resorts to certain generalizations which do not do justice to the complexity of the six individual case studies. The case studies focus on two groups of countries, each of which emerged after the collapse of the respective communist federation, the Soviet Union or Yugoslavia. This paper does not discuss the intensity of the conflicts nor their current status. However, it is important to accentuate the comparability of the political transformations the six studied countries went through and the institutional and international contexts of the examined political interactions/processes.